By Seth Joel Corey, Marek Kimmel, Joshua N. Leonard
The blood process is multi-scale, from the organism to the organs to cells to intracellular signaling pathways to macromolecule interactions. Blood involves circulating cells, mobile fragments (platelets and microparticles), and plasma macromolecules. Blood cells and their fragments outcome from a highly-ordered procedure, hematopoiesis. Definitive hematopoiesis happens within the bone marrow, the place pluripotential stem cells provide upward push to a number of lineages of hugely really expert cells. Highly-productive and regularly regenerative, hematopoiesis calls for a microenvironment of mesenchymal cells and blood vessels.
A platforms Biology method of Blood is split into 3 major sections: uncomplicated parts, physiological approaches, and medical purposes. utilizing blood as a window, one could learn healthiness and illness via this precise device field with reactive organic fluids that mirrors the existing hemodynamics of the vessel partitions and many of the blood cellphone varieties. Many blood illnesses, infrequent and customary can and feature been exploited utilizing structures biology ways with winning effects and accordingly perfect types for structures drugs. extra importantly, hematopoiesis bargains the most effective studied structures with perception into stem cellphone biology, mobile interplay, improvement; linage programing and reprograming which are each day motivated by way of the main mature and understood regulatory networks.
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Extra resources for A Systems Biology Approach to Blood
Krinner and I. Roeder nor HSCs, but is found in most stem cell systems . Chute and coworkers, therefore, tested the effect of human ECs on self-renewal of human HSCs. Interestingly, noncontact culture of human BM or cord blood HSCs with primary human brain ECs induced a tenfold expansion of human HSCs with the potential to repopulate immunodeficient mice, suggesting that adult brain ECs produced soluble factors, which induce HSC self-renewal [64, 65]. Analysis of several candidate proteins revealed that concerted action of either angiopoietin-like 5, insulin-like growth-factor-binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) or pleiotrophin together with early acting cytokines (SCF, TPO, Flt3-L) significantly supports the expansion of HSCs in vitro.
2006;25(6):977–88. 39. Qian H, Buza-Vidas N, Hyland CD, Jensen CT, Antonchuk J, Mansson R, et al. Critical role of thrombopoietin in maintaining adult quiescent hematopoietic stem cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2007;1(6):671–84. 40. Nilsson SK, Johnston HM, Whitty GA, Williams B, Webb RJ, Denhardt DT, et al. Osteopontin, a key component of the hematopoietic stem cell niche and regulator of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells. Blood. 2005;106(4):1232–9. 41. Ding L, Saunders TL, Enikolopov G, Morrison SJ.
It 22 A. Krinner and I. Roeder intends to describe almost the entire complexity of a certain (sub−)system and can certainly help to achieve a detailed quantitative understanding of specific regulatory processes. However, due to the complexity of the models and the corresponding huge number of model parameters, their application and their predictive power are usually restricted to particular (experimental) situations. Also, to be successful, this type of models requires detailed information on the molecular parameters, such as transcription-factor-binding rates, diffusion coefficients, or protein decay rates, which are very often not available.