By Turner P.
The hot variation of fast Notes in Molecular Biology has been revised and up-to-date to incorporate details on micro RNAs, RNA inhibition, sensible genomics, proteomics, imaging, stem cells and bioinformatics. Written in an available kind, the booklet can be a hugely useful gizmo for learning molecular biology.
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Extra resources for Instant Noties in Molecular Biology
Effect of acid Highly acidic conditions may hydrolyze nucleic acids to their components: bases, sugar and phosphate. Moderate acid causes the hydrolysis of the purine base glycosylic bonds to yield apurinic acid. More complex chemistry has been developed to remove particular bases, and is the basis of chemical DNA sequencing. Effect of alkali Chemical denaturation Viscosity Buoyant density Related topics Stability of nucleic acids High pH denatures DNA and RNA by altering the tautomeric state of the bases and disrupting speciﬁc hydrogen bonding.
1. The denaturation of DNA at high pH. (a) Alkali shifts the tautomeric ratio to the enolate form; (b) the tautomeric shift of deoxyguanosine; (c) the denaturation of double-helical DNA. alkali. This comes about because of the presence of the 2Ј-OH group in RNA, which is perfectly positioned to participate in the cleavage of the RNA backbone by intramolecular attack on the phosphate of the phosphodiester bond (Fig. 2). This reaction is promoted by high pH, since −OH acts as a general base. The products are a free 5Ј-OH and a 2Ј,3Ј-cyclic phosphodiester, which is subsequently hydrolyzed to either the 2Ј- or 3Ј-monophosphate.
Protein families arise through gene duplication and subsequent divergent evolution of the new genes. Macromolecules (A3) Large macromolecular assemblies (A4) Amino acids (B1) Protein synthesis (Section Q) Sizes and shapes Two broad classes of protein may be distinguished. Globular proteins are folded compactly and behave in solution more or less as spherical particles; most enzymes are globular in nature. Fibrous proteins have very high axial ratios (length/width) and are often important structural proteins, for example silk ﬁbroin and keratin in hair and wool.